Amidst the Miscellaneous lists and memoranda 1865-1870 of the Superintendent of Education Georgia can be found a list of the Teachers in the newly formed Freedmen's Bureau schools. Although the lists do not contain the students' names the record gives the station and county at which each school was situated and the numbers of students who attended in each month.
In the report preceding the list, the Superintendent, described how the teaches were harassed and threatened daily and many schools were destroyed in 'incendiary attacks.' He mentions by name, Rev. J H Cauldwell of Savannah, Georgia and his wife, who opened a school for 600 'colored children.' (Report dated Oct. 8 1866)
G L Eberhart was appointed Superintendent of Schools (Education) in 1865. Edward A Ware succeeded him in August 1867.
Reading these records made me curious to know how many people of color became teachers by 1870. A search of the US Federal Census 1870 on ancestry.com for Georgia (exact) Teacher (exact) Black (exact) gives 82 returns,
27 Female Teachers and 55 Male Teachers. Please read Update
Today, I would like to honour the brave women of color who became the first teachers within the formal education system by saying their names.
Polly Brandon, School Teacher, res. Randolph, born c1790 Georgia, living with John & Mary Williamson and their children Sarah & Abram
Corrilas Brown, School Teacher, res. Bibb, born c1820 North Carolina
Dicey Brown, School Teacher, res. Richmond, born c1820 New York
Kate Brown, School Teacher, res. Clarke, born c1843 Georgia, living with Edward & Ellen Harden & Evie Brown
Sylvia Camack, School Teacher, res. Clarke, born c1852 Georgia, living with Levin & Holy & Mary Camack & Andrew & Finnie Jackson
Patsey Christopher, Glynn, School Teacher, born c1845 Georgia, living with Lair Christopher & Cornelia Liggins
Belle Clifton, res. Pike, School Teacher, born c1850 Illinois, living with The Willis family, William, Esther, Thomas, William, Fletcher, Mary, Agoness
Ruth Grimes. res. Liberty, School Teacher, born c1834 Georgia, living with Joseph & Lucinda Williams, Sarah Bolton, Anna, Josephine, Joseph & John Grimes, Ann & Thomas Rawls
Millie Green, res. Taylor, School Teacher, born c1820 Georgia, living with Charles Green and Frances, Luna, Isaac & Allice Green
Martha Harper, res. Hancock, School Teacher, born c1852 Georgia, living with Benj, Amy, Matilda & Biddy Harris, Reddick Baker & Phillip Timmons
Martha Hoge, res. Whitfield, School Teacher, born c1846 Georgia, living with Allen, Hannah, Ervin, Indiana, & Polene Hoge
Eliza Holmes, res. Early, Teacher Milker, born c1846 North Carolina, living with Willis, Lizzie, Fanny, & Thomas Holmes & Lewis Sanburn
Francis Jordan, res. Morgan, School Teacher, born c1830 Georgia, living with James & Ann Jordan, Tom Cheese, Lutetia, Lucy & Mary Jordan
Berry A Loftin, res. Coweta, Teacher, born c1857 Georgia, living with Simon & Caroline Loftin, Benjamin, Hannah, Dennis, Moses, Allice, Isaiah, Augustus & Elizabeth Loftin
Lucy Montgomery, res. Fulton, School Teacher, born c1830 Georgia, living with Ransom & Ida Montgomery
Betty Outlaw, res. Sumter, Teacher, born c1849 Georgia
Gracy Spann, res. Jefferson, School Teacher, born c1843 Georgia, living with Reuben & Pinkey Spann & Lissy Belt
Lula Stevenson, res. Coweta, School Teacher, born c1853 Georgia, living with Jeremiah & Winney Leigh, & Alonzo, Laura & Willie Leigh
Sarah Stokes, res. Richmond, School Teacher, born c1854 Georgia, living with Peyton & Mary Ann Stokes, & Joseph, Elizabeth, Samuel & James Stokes
Sarah Talmadge, res. Monroe, School Teacher, born c1847 Georgia, living with the Talmadge family, Anderson, Jinsey, Jack, Alen, Alice & Ada
Ann Thomas, res. Bibb, School Teacher, born 1854 Georgia, living with Harriet Thomas
Emma Williams, res. Sumter, Teacher, born 1853 Georgia, living with Edmund, Sally, Elijah & Henrietta Williams
Elizabeth Wimbush, res. Bibb, School Teacher, born c1810 Virginia, living with Henry, Oliver & Henrietta Wimbush
By 1880 (US Federal Census) Elizabeth (Betsy) was still living with husband Henry and son Silas, born c1858 in District 1085, Bibb, Georgia. Sadly Elizabeth was suffering from rheumatism and no longer teaching.
Ariadna Woodliff, res. Bibb, School Teacher, Born c1846 Georgia, living with Edward & Mahala Woodliff, & Emeline Spicer & John Carey. In Dec. 1871 Ariadna married Thomas N M Sellers. By 1920, though widowed Ariadna Sellers a homeowner, still paying her mortgage and living with her grandson Cassander W Sellers, born c1903, her daughter-in-law Mildred Sellers & a boarder Francis Williams a taxicab agent in Macon, Georgia. By 1930, Ariadna owned her home in Spring St, Macon, valued at $2,000. Frank Williams & Mattie Kendrick, lodgers.
Elizabeth Young, res. Macon, School Teacher, born c1835 North Carolina, living with Lucinda, Alexander & Dolphus Freeman
If you have an ancestor of color who was a teacher in 1870 you are welcome to add their name and place of residence in the comments box below.
Update re Eliza Teacher, res. Pulaski Mary Teacher, res. Pulaski ; I returned to ancestry today to do some further research on the Teachers and discovered that Mary & Eliza Teacher of Pulaski, Georgia were not in fact teachers at all but ancestry had returned them to me because their SURNAME was Teacher. This is turning into a real learning experience! I will check the others one by one and update the blog accordingly.
Freedmen's Bureau Records; Superintendent of education 1865-1872
~List of Teachers 1869 begins W C Morrill, Americus, Sumter, Georgia
J H Cauldwell US Federal Census 1870, LaGrange, Troup County, Georgia
Eliza Teacher & Mary Teacher 1870 Census
Elizabeth Wimbush 1870
Ariadna Woodliff marriage 1871